Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is an object-relational database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.
Users of Oracle databases refer to the server-side memory-structure as the SGA (System Global Area). The SGA typically holds cache information such as data-buffers, SQL commands, and user information. In addition to storage, the database consists of online redo logs (or logs), which hold transactional history. Processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs (offline redo logs), which provide the basis for data recovery and for the physical-standby forms of data replication using Oracle Data Guard.
The Oracle RAC (Real Application Clusters) option uses multiple instances attached to a central storage array. In version 10g, grid computing introduced shared resources where an instance can use CPU resources from another node in the grid. The advantage of Oracle RAC is that the resources on both nodes are used by the database, and each node uses its own memory and CPU. Information is shared between nodes through the interconnect—the virtual private network.
The Oracle DBMS can store and execute stored procedures and functions within itself. PL/SQL (Oracle Corporation’s proprietary procedural extension to SQL), or the object-oriented language Java can invoke such code objects and/or provide the programming structures for writing them.
The Oracle RDBMS stores data logically in the form of tablespaces and physically in the form of data files (“data files”). Tablespaces can contain various types of memory segments, such as Data Segments, Index Segments, etc. Segments, in turn, comprise one or more extents. Extents comprise groups of contiguous data blocks. Data blocks from the basic units of data storage.
A DBA can impose maximum quotas on storage per user within each tablespace.